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Cannabis oil cbd montel williams vs

complications: diabetes CBD followin type-1 reveal on CBD the helps oil for Research diabetes type-1

vengador0416
09.11.2018

Content:

  • complications: diabetes CBD followin type-1 reveal on CBD the helps oil for Research diabetes type-1
  • mindbodygreen
  • Introduction
  • Benefits of CBD oil for type-1 diabetes | CBD oil and type-2 diabetes oil and type-1 diabetes (also type-2) and how CBD can help relieve diabetic complications. Recent research reveals evidence of a (new discovery of the ECS . on CBD oil for type-1 diabetes helps reveal the following complications. In , 1 out of 10 adult deaths in Canada was tied to diabetes. In addition, the following are common complications often stemming from diabetes: on the role cannabis oil takes for prevention of Type II Diabetes. However, research does show it to be beneficial as an effective and alternative treatment. Advanced · Journal list · Help The endocannabinoid system comprises the following: (1) the G CBD may have therapeutic utility in treating diabetic complications In another study, CBD was reported to reduce expression of reactive . Major effectors of β-cell death in type 1 diabetes are various free.

    complications: diabetes CBD followin type-1 reveal on CBD the helps oil for Research diabetes type-1

    These are solely based on the personal opinion of marijuana users in general. In fact, history suggests a much simpler difference between indica and sativa. According to the original classification, Cannabis indica was named by the biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. He observed that the Cannabis plants from India appear different from the Cannabis plants in Europe.

    To separate the two species, he labeled Cannabis indica for the Cannabis in India and sativa for the Cannabis in Europe. Although, at one point in history, the indica plants may have a higher THC content and the sativa plant may have a higher CBD content, the mixing of gene pools in the strain breeding process has produced many plants that have varying amounts of both CBD and THC chemicals. In the current Cannabis gene pool, you may find certain sativa strains that are rich in THC and indica strains that have low THC content.

    The strains you hear from movies to pop-culture articles are actually just the results from mixed breeding of the two species of Cannabis. Even within a specific strain of Cannabis, you can still find variation of the cannabinoid contents due to the heredity combination as expressed by the female plants.

    So how can consumers find the right strain for their needs? To solve that problem, a lot of the products ranging from dried flower to concentrates to edibles will indicate the amount of THC and CBD contents so that consumers can pick out the products that match their needs.

    For example, an individual can pick a product that is higher in THC for pain relief and sleep apnea purposes, while another individual can opt for a product that is higher in CBD for treating depression. Some people may even choose a hybrid product to help with pain management but still want an uplifting sensation without the sleepy after-effect.

    One unique factor that separates Cannabis from other illegal drugs is that the human body is equipped with an innate brain system that reacts to the THC and CBD enzymes. This system is called endocannabinoid system also known as EC system ; it is responsible for many body functions which includes cognition, emotions, motor coordination and movements, appetite, and reaction to responses. And unlike other illegal chemicals that creates active damages to the neural receptors for example, LSD literally burns a hole in the brain by damaging neurons and brain cells that can be shown in x-rays photos , the cannabinoids are natural and have no physical damage to the human brain and body.

    In fact, human breast milk naturally contains many of the same cannabinoids found in Cannabis. These chemicals are actually extremely crucial for development such as induce nutrition intake, stimulate brain cell formation, and protect body cells from harmful bacteria, virus, and even cancer formation.

    In the past, the THC cannabinoid enzyme has been the focused in many health studies concerning marijuana. Although THC is known to have some healing properties, recent studies have shown that it is the cannabidiol enzyme CBD and its precursor enzyme CBDa CBD exists as CBDa before the heating or extraction process that carries much more medicinal value for many diseases ranging from psychological disorders, neuroprotective effects, rejuvenating properties, to anti-cancer healing abilities.

    Most people would think that an increased caloric intake would result in a higher BMI. It would also be logical to assume that marijuana users tend to be overweight and prone to diabetes.

    Surprisingly, these two assumptions do not seem to apply to marijuana users. In order to determine whether or not the assumptions stand, an early medical correlation study was conducted to examine the effects of Cannabis use on blood glucose level and insulin level. In the study, subjects out of total participants were marijuana users. These participants showed a lower tendency to have diabetes than non-marijuana users.

    This discovery answers how exactly Cannabis can benefit type 2 diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals. For individuals who suffer from obesity and type 2 diabetes , endocannabinoid imbalance may be one of the reason why certain people have a hard time losing weight.

    It has been found that the endocannabinoid system has a role in regulating energy homeostasis especially in the intra-abdominal adipose tissue. When the endocannabinoid system is over-regulated, it may lead to excessive visceral fat accumulation in the stomach area and reduced adiponectin release from the tissue. Adiponectin is a protein that is responsible for regulating glucose levels and fatty acid breakdown. The decreasing amount of adiponectin in the body can lead to insulin insensitivity and increases the chance of developing type 2 diabetes.

    This chain reaction can turn into a vicious cycle of insulin resistance, further endocannabinoid system activation, greater increase in appetite and food-seeking behavior , and additional body weight and fat gain. Unlike THC that creates the munchies effect, CBD can help to suppress appetite and help individuals to re-balance the endocannabinoid system by increasing the fat breakdown, increase the mitochondria activities and promote metabolism, and decrease fat storage.

    In a way, CBD changes the white-colored fat storage cells to beige-colored fat cells for energy making. So not only is the fat much easier to be burned off, the beige-colored fat cells also improve glucose tolerance by decreasing insulin resistance in the muscle and liver cells.

    Although it may not completely treat diabetes, CBD can alleviate the condition so that diabetic individuals can suffer from less blood glucose fluctuation and manage their blood glucose level with less medication. Another factor that CBD is a suitable treatment option for type 2 diabetes is that insulin resistance is a great contribution to the disease. Aside from CBD, THCV can also be a weight loss aide for type 2 diabetes individuals who are obese and need to lose weight to better control their blood glucose level and prevent complications from arising.

    It was found that CBD exhibits anti-autoimmune abilities. Even though some non-specific immunosuppression medication have shown to be successful in preventing diabetes, they are not an ideal alternative. Suppressing the immune system in a general fashion for an extended amount of time would present a dangerous treatment. Moreover, these drugs indicated to be working only temporarily in the clinic until resistance was acquired.

    The marijuana and diabetes research is a lot more promising. In fact, clinical studies have shown that CBD can save insulin-forming cells from damage so that normal glucose metabolism can occur.

    At the moment, scientists have successfully use CBD to reverse the auto-immune disease in mice that suffer from early stage of type 1 diabetes. They are in test trials to transfer this knowledge into treatments for human patients so that CBD can be a cure for type 1 diabetes.

    Although Cannabis cannot cure type 1 diabetes currently, the THC enzyme can suppress the autoimmune attacks so that less insulin is needed to lower the blood glucose levels. At the same time, CBD has found to reduce the inflammation of pancreatic cells and THCV has shown to improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin sensitivity for type 1 diabetic individuals so that there is a possibility that less insulin is needed for the management and the fluctuation of the blood glucose level is more manageable.

    To confirm these findings, another research was conducted in where obese rats lost significant weight and experienced an increase in pancreas weight after exposure to organic Cannabis extract. The increase in the weight of the pancreas indicates that the insulin production pancreatic cells known as beta cells are protected by the presence of cannabinoids in type 1 diabetes.

    For many type 1 diabetes patient, stress and anxiety are a common problem that can aggravate the blood glucose level fluctuation. In general, many prediabetic patients have similar problem as type 2 diabetic individuals; they are very likely to suffer from obesity, poor eating habits , and lack of exercise.

    Diabetes is associated with high levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance and a low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These at-risk individuals may benefit from the health benefits offered by Cannabis products. Many research studies have found that the average regular Cannabis users tend to have a lower body mass index BMI than non-Cannabis users.

    They also have a smaller waist circumference than non-Cannabis users. At the same time, they have lesser chance of developing type 2 diabetes than those who do not use Cannabis. This study suggests that Cannabis can not only help control diabetes but also prevent the onset of diabetes. Insulin resistance IR is a condition that makes body cells reject the normal functioning of insulin, a pancreatic hormone that is essential to the regulation of glucose metabolism. Type 1 diabetic individuals are unable to produce insulin.

    Unlike type 1 diabetes, the insulin production is unaffected in type 2 diabetes individuals. However, their body cells are ineffective at processing insulin or are unable to process it. When cells become insulin-resistant, they are incapable to absorb the glucose needed to supply the cells with energy.

    This reaction causes the unused glucose to build up in the bloodstream. If left untreated, this causes a downward spiral of chain reaction that consequently causes hyperglycemia. A study conducted in has found that Cannabis users have a mean insulin resistance of 1.

    Current cannabis users are also discovered to have lower blood glucose levels compared to past users and non-users. These current Cannabis users have a mean blood glucose levels of On the other hand, past users have a mean blood glucose level of These conclusion highly suggest that Cannabis can help suppress insulin resistance and help type 2 diabetic individuals in managing their blood glucose level.

    However, more research is needed to better understand how exactly does Cannabis help with this problem and whether it is THC, CBD, or other cannabinoids that actively helps in reducing insulin resistance. The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis AAMC has suggested that Cannabis has the ability to suppress arterial inflammation and prevent diabetic individuals from developing cardiovascular diseases.

    The cannabinoids also have the ability to keep blood vessels to dilate so that circulation can be improved in the process. This can be a great prevention for individuals who are prone to swelling of the feet due to poor circulation. It can also help with spider veins, varicose veins, night cramps, restless leg syndrome, blood clots, ankle swelling, lipodermatosclerosis, and panniculitis. One of the most common problems that diabetic individuals face is skin sensitivity and irritation complications.

    The cannabinoid inflammation suppression properties can help with skin inflammation problems. For those who have a tendency to suffer from foot sores, rashes, and other skin irritation problems, Cannabis can alleviate the complications and speed up the healing process.

    As a matter of fact, several science studies have found THC to be beneficial to skin cancer. Other studies have documented the anti-aging and intense moisturizing properties of cannabinoid. The sedation and pain relief properties can also help alleviate the uncomfortable sensations from the skin irritation. Without constant scratching and rubbing on the irritated area, the skin can heal faster to lessen the chance for further complications. Neuropathy refers to nerve damages caused by certain diseases or disorders.

    It is found in 60 to 70 percent of all individuals with diabetes. To be more specific, there are 4 types of diabetes-related neuropathy:. It is simply one of the worst complications for diabetic individuals. Although there are several treatment options available, none of them are sufficient in preventing neuropathy let alone reversing the complications.

    Several studies have shown vaporized Cannabis to reduce pain and slow the advancing nerve damage of all four types of neuropathy.

    In some types, there was more than a 30 percent improvement without any significant impact on daily functioning or cognitive abilities. The anti-inflammation property does not just stop there. Some health researchers have also suggested that the cell growth acceleration ability can even reverse the neuropathy damages. Just like neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy is another common complication that makes life so much more difficult for diabetic individuals.

    It has been shown in several studies that cannabidiol can work as a multi-tasker to protect the eyes from growing an excess of leaky blood vessels the number 1 symptom of diabetic retinopathy and prevent retinal cell death. There are even some researchers who suggest that CBD may even have cell growth ability to reverse the damage done by diabetes. High blood pressure is often a complication of Type 2 diabetes.

    Although medical marijuana does lower blood pressure, it also briefly raises heart rate after consumption. As a result, Cannabis is not recommended for those individuals who have pre-existing heart conditions. Having said that, there are medical studies showing that prolonged marijuana users can develop a tolerance for this side-effect and they do not suffer any negative effects from the brief episode of quickened heart rate. CBD is an effective treatment for mental health disorders such as anxiety, psychosis, and depression.

    Recent health studies have shown neurogenesis neural cell growth is a crucial neurological process that effectively helps to alleviate stress. Similar to exercising, CBD facilitates neuron production. Some of the most well-known strains that have been effective treating with anxiety and stress-alleviation are Cannatonic, Frank Ocean, and Ghost Rider. At the same time, CBD offers an instant energy boost for the stressed individuals.

    Many high-functioning anxious individuals have found CBD heavy strains to be a new alternative to coffee without the jitteriness. It can also help to alleviate serious social anxiety. For depressed individuals, the uplifting mood enhancing ability of CBD has known to offer a positive reinforcement so that they can feel better about themselves and their current situation.

    Cannabis can be a treatment to prevent seizures in individuals who suffer from severe epilepsy. The cannabinoids have shown to significantly decrease both the severity and frequency of the seizures. In these cases, the affected children have become much more stabilized after starting a daily CBD concentrated tincture regimen. One of the most famous case is a 5 year old girl named Charlotte Figi who suffers from Dravet syndrome.

    After the documentary on the case has been broadcasted on television and news article, more children who suffer from similar health problems have started similar cannabinoid therapies and have seen greater improvement in both physical and mental development within short amount of time. Similar to treating severely epileptic children with CBD oil, children who suffer from severe cases of autism can show great improvement with CBD oil treatment.

    There have numerous cases where a non-verbal child develops significant verbal skills and exhibit much more social interaction as little as 3 weeks. One of the biggest discovery for Cannabis is that it can be a great treatment for various cancers. The Pacific Medical Center of San Francisco has made an important discovery that CBD is a powerful treatment to stop cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and growth of tumors. A study done by Sean McAllister of the research center has shown breast cancer show that the number of cancer cells diminished as more CBD was applied.

    Essentially, CBD may be a generally effective way to switch off the cancer-causing gene, providing patients with a non-toxic therapy to treat aggressive forms of cancer. There is one exception to the theory that CBD suppresses appetite, but it is a blessing as well. Many people who have difficulty eating due to their stress or anxiety can use CBD to get rid of that sick feeling in their chest or stomach, allowing them to eat again once their anxiety subsides.

    Science research has shown that Cannabis can reduce vomiting and nausea for patients who are going through chemotherapy. It also helps to improve appetite and promote eating. Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety condition caused by psychologically disturbing events such as sexual assault, severe accidents, and military combat.

    Individuals who suffer from PTSD can exhibit a combination of symptoms such as constant flashbacks of the traumatic event, active social isolation, anxiety attacks, insomnia, constant nightmares, depression, and emotional instability.

    For these problems, CBD can help PTSD individuals to feel less anxious about their situation and feel motivated to carry on their daily activities.

    Depending on the individuals needs and symptoms, several strains of product may be needed provide sufficient treatment. Also, further research studies have found that cannabinoids increases metabolism and promote more fat burning.

    At the same time, CBD is a great encouragement for users to get off the couch and exercise. Research studies done by the University of Nottingham have indicated that Cannabis can help protect brain and neural damage caused by a stroke.

    By administrating Cannabis extract within short duration after the stroke, the affected area by the stroke has significantly reduce in size.

    These findings are consistent amongst rats, mice, and monkey test subjects. Further studies in have revealed that CBD can actively block the glutamate neurotoxin from killing brain cells during and after a stroke. As a matter of fact, CBD has shown to be even more effective than vitamin E and A in blocking the glutamate neural damage.

    Similarly, this unique property allows CBD to help with individuals who have suffered from concussions and brain trauma. Since the early s, health research studies have found that Cannabis lowers the intraocular pressure IOP in both normal people and patients who suffer from glaucoma. By decreasing the pressure, the cannabinoids allows less damage to the optic nerve that eventually cause vision loss. At the same time, it helps to alleviate various symptoms that are associated with glaucoma such as eye pain and nausea.

    By blocking the neural enzyme that produce the amyloid plaques, Cannabis can greatly decrease the progression of the disease. Cannabis has a long history of being used as a pain relief from chronic pain to muscle spasms to menstrual cramps. As a matter of fact, a company backed by actor Whoopi Goldberg is in the works of creating a tampon that is infused with cannabinoid to alleviate menstrual cramps.

    There are also a wide market of cannabinoid-infused balms and lotions available as a topical pain relief aide. Individuals who are suffering from multiple sclerosis and other auto-immune debilitating conditions e. As these diseases stem from inflammation of the inner lining of the digestive tracts, the anti-inflammatory ability of the cannabinoid can drastically provide suppression of the inflammation as well as pain relief for the intense pain associated with the damage.

    And in the process, the chemicals stop the digestive tracts from being over-stimulated and create more damages from the immune system attacking the inflamed areas. In these few recent years, more and more Cannabis-infused beauty products have come on the market as anti-aging skin products. These balms and lotions can actually be a treatment for skin irritation problems such as hives and rashes, acne it moisturize the skin while kills off germs and reduce inflammation , and eczema it suppresses the redness and reduce irritation.

    As a matter of fact, cannabinoid cream can be used as an after-shave balm to slow down hair growth while calms the freshly-shaven skin from irritation. Unfortunately most commercially available indica strains have been selected and bred for their high levels of THC and their psychedelic affects for the past 20 to 30 years. As a result, many growers are now concentrating on CBD-rich strains for their medicinal benefits instead of pursuing gummy THC-covered strains.

    Consequently, CBD-rich strains are making a comeback. This strain is a popular for patients who suffer from PTSD, epilepsy, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and autism. Although growers are striving to come up with even better CBD-rich strains, there has been suggestions that a completely no THC strain cannot exist because it plays a role in the plant structure.

    The evidence can be seen in CBD-rich strains as the plants exhibit very weak stems and require many supports to hold up the plant until harvest. This stem weakness is much more severe in plants that have a lower THC content. After hearing that there are so many advantages to Cannabis, you may start to wonder if you need to smoke the herb in order receive the benefits.

    The answer is no. There are numerous ways in which individuals can be medicated without hitting a lighter. Here are a list of ways Cannabis can be consumed: This is the most original and simple method of consuming Cannabis.

    The most common way is to grind up the dried female flower buds into fine granules, burn the content, and inhale the vaporized smoke containing the cannabinoids through a bong, pipe, paper-wrapped joint, and tobacco-leaf wrapped or cigar wrapping blunts. For some individuals who want to intake less smoke, they may prefer smoking the Kief. Kief is a refined powder that contains the trichrome of the flower buds along with some leaves and flower residues. And when the residues are all sifted out, this super refined trichrome powder is called hash or hashish.

    Usually the hash is further processed into a sticky oil substance called wax it can also be called shatter, budder, honey oil, and butane hash oil depending on the appearance of the concentrate and the method being used to process the hash to be burned on the heating device or a vaping pen. This wax is super high in THC and CBD content and should not be used by beginners as the dosage is very high compared to smoking or vaping.

    This method is commonly known as vaping. Like the nicotine vaporizers, the cannabinoids are extracted from the dried flowers into a concentrated oil often called hash oil through various methods.

    This oil is then heated by the heating coil in the vaporizer pen or machine to about to F degrees and the oil is turned into a vapor for inhalation. Cannabinoids can be extracted from the flower buds by using alcohol or food-grade glycerin to create a concentrated thick liquid solution.

    The most famous tincture is called Rick Simpson Oil that is originally produced from only indica strains of Cannabis to treat cancer and tumors. In last few years, rich CBD strains have also been processed into tincture so that children can benefit from the cannabinoids without needing to inhale vapor or eating an edible.

    This method also allows a precise measurement of dosage for the treatment without any need of estimation. This category is quite similar to tincture. The only difference is that instead of using alcohol and food-grade glycerin to extract the cannabinoids, a fatty solvent is used for the extraction process.

    The solvent can be butter, cocoa butter, coconut oil, various cooking oil such as olive oil, milk, cream, and even non-edible skin moisturizing oils. The food grade oil or cream infusions can then be eaten directly or made into an edible for consumption.

    Those food items that include these oil infusions or tincture infusions are all categorized as edibles. These days, you can find anything a wide range of edibles that are similar to desserts and candy.

    Other edibles can include ice-cream, pasta sauce, coffee creamer, syrup, and even chewing gum. For individuals who do cannot ingest fat, dairy products, or alcohol due to various allergies or medical conditions, there are manufacture companies that have produced capsules that contain the extract for consumption.

    Similar to nicotine patch, various manufacturer companies have produced a cannabinoid patch for individuals who just wish to enjoy the benefits without even consuming any Cannabis products. The cannabinoid-infused tampons is another variation from the same methods.

    Another variation works by an oral dissolve strip similar to a breath freshener strip. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency in the United States, here are some of the possible short-term negative effects:.

    Other common symptoms of consuming Cannabis are dizziness, nausea, tiredness, and hallucinations. It is also important to note that Cannabis is not for everyone.

    Like any other medication treatments, each individuals show reactions that are slightly different from other people based on their allergies and physical condition. Some people may exhibit allergy symptoms similar to pollen allergies since cannabinoids are extracted from the flower buds.

    In serious allergy cases, the individual may show swelling, excessive coughing, fever, and difficulty of breathing due to swelling of the air passages. Individuals who are allergic or sensitive to smoke vapor should avoid smoking the cannabis. Because inhaling smoke can irritate the respiratory system, it should also be avoided by individuals who suffer from breathing-related conditions such as bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.

    And as cannabinoids can produce a temporary increase in heart rate, individuals who suffer from high blood pressure or heart disease may want to avoid using cannabis unless they have consulted their doctors and have been advised otherwise.

    Those who suffered from a stroke or heart attack must discuss the options with their doctors before trying any Cannabis products. Individuals who suffer from peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis should also avoid Cannabis because the elevated blood pressure may increase the chance of heart attacks, angina, and strokes.

    Moreover, because Cannabis can cause dilation to the blood vessels, even the doctors do not know how the Cannabis will react with your medications. These results suggest that CBD may exhibit a profile similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs. Recently, a study tested CBD effects both in dopamine-based and glutamate-based models predictive of antipsychotic activity in mice. CBD inhibited the hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine in a dose-related manner, in agreement with the data obtained with another dopamine-based model, and also attenuated the hyperlocomotion induced by ketamine, extending its antipsychotic-like action to a glutamate-based model.

    As expected, while both haloperidol and clozapine inhibited hyperlocomotion, only haloperidol induced catalepsy within the dose range used. Therefore, similar to clozapine, CBD did not induce catalepsy with doses that inhibited hyperlocomotion. Strengthening these results, CBD reversed the disruption of prepulse inhibition PPI of the startle response in mice caused by MK, a glutamate receptor antagonist, as did clozapine, further supporting the idea that this compound may act as an atypical antipsychotic drug.

    Even in human models of psychotic symptoms induced in healthy volunteers, the antipsychotic-like activity of CBD can be demonstrated. In the perception of binocular depth inversion, used to evaluate the antipsychotic effects of new drugs, 65 the impairment of the perception of illusory image induced by nabilone was attenuated by CBD, suggesting an antipsychotic-like effect of this compound. The therapeutic use of CBD in psychotic patients was tested for the first time in More recently, CBD was administered to three schizophrenic patients who had not responded to typical antipsychotic drugs.

    Confirming the suggestion of case-studies, a preliminary report from a 4-week double-blind controlled clinical trial, using an adequate number of patients and comparing the effects of CBD with amisulpride in acute schizophrenic and schizophreniform psychosis, showed that CBD significantly reduced acute psychotic symptoms after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment when compared to baseline.

    In this trial, CBD did not differ from amisulpride except for a lower incidence of side effects. The possible therapeutic effect of CBD on movement disorders came from anecdotal accounts and preliminary reports of open trials, in the middle 's.

    Afterwards, this field of research was apparently abandoned until recently, when CBD's neuroprotective effects began to be reported in animal models of Parkinson's disease. CBD as a drug with a wide spectrum of action 's. The interest in studies about cannabis was renewed in the early 's, with the description and cloning of specific receptors for the cannabinoids CB 1 and CB 2 in the nervous system and the subsequent isolation of anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid. However, the number of studies on CBD has increased only in the last five years Figure 1 , mainly stimulated by discoveries of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective actions of CBD.

    The neuroprotection observed with cannabidiol was not affected by a cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating it is cannabinoid-receptor independent. In line with this, it was demonstrated that CBD can reduce hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants.

    CBD was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or a-tocopherol, indicating that this drug is a potent antioxidant. The anti-oxidative action of CBD can be responsible for the neuroprotection reported in animal models of Parkinson's disease PD.

    Daily administration of CBD during 2 weeks may produce a significant waning in the magnitude of toxic effects caused by a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle, 75 probably due to receptor-independent actions.

    The conclusion was that the antioxidant properties of CBD can provide neuroprotection against the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that occur in PD.

    This could reflect an enhancement of neuronal and axonal integrity in these regions by CBD. The psychotic symptoms significantly decreased along the CBD treatment, and the scale used to follow up the PD course exhibited a significant decrease of the total score.

    The possible neuroprotective actions of CBD highlight the importance of studies on the therapeutic potential of this compound in Alzheimer's disease AD. AD is widely associated with oxidative stress due in part, to the membrane action of beta-amyloid peptide beta-A aggregates. A marked reduction in the cell survival was observed following exposure of cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells to beta-A peptide.

    Treatment of the cells with CBD prior to beta-A exposure significantly elevated the cell survival, probably by a combination of neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic actions against beta-A toxicity.

    In addition, CBD inhibited caspase 3 generation from its inactive precursor, pro-caspase 3, an effect that is involved in the signaling pathway for this neuroprotection. Mice were inoculated with human beta-A into the right dorsal hippocampus, and treated daily with vehicle or CBD 2. In contrast to vehicle, CBD dose-dependent significantly inhibited mRNA for glial fibrillary acidic protein and the protein expression in beta-A injected animals.

    Recently it has been suggested that CBD may protect neurons against the multiple molecular and cellular factors involved in the different steps of the neurodegenerative process, which takes place during prion infection.

    In , a few previous reports showing that CBD can modulate tumor necrosis factor in vitro and suppress chemokine production by a human B cell, motivated the study of CBD as a therapeutic agent in collagen-induced arthritis, a model for rheumatoid arthritis.

    In addition, CBD has suppressed T cell responses and has decreased the release of bioactive tumor necrosis factor TNF from synovial cells isolated from arthritic knee joints of treated mice.

    Data of this study suggest that the antiarthritic effect of CBD is due to a combination of immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. CBD also proved effective in chronic neuropathic sciatic nerve chronic constriction painful states in rats, reducing hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli. This effect was prevented by the vanilloid antagonist capsazepine, but not by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. The suppressive effects of CBD on cellular immune responses and on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators may indicate its usefulness in several inflammatory diseases.

    The anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD have led to the research of its possible activity in preventing damage caused by cerebral ischemia. Seven days after the ischemia, CBD antagonized electroencephalographic flattening, showing a dose-dependent bell-shaped curve. CBD has been studied for ischemic heart diseases in rats. Cardiac function was studied by echocardiography and showed preservation of shortening fraction in CBD-treated animals. In isolated hearts, no significant difference was detected between rats that received CBD or vehicle regarding: This study shows that CBD induces a substantial cardioprotective effect, but only in vivo.

    The initial lesion of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is an inflammation of the islands of Langerhans, during which leukocytes, lymphocytes in particular, surround and infiltrate the islets. Histological examination of the pancreatic islets of CBD-treated mice revealed significant reduction of the inflammation. In addition, the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL produced by splenocytes was significantly reduced, whereas the level of the anti-inflammatory IL was significantly elevated after CBD treatment.

    CBD has also been proven useful for possible complications of diabetes. The majority of diabetic complications are associated with pathophysiological alterations in the vasculature. Microvascular complications involve retinopathy and nephropathy while the atherosclerosis is the most common macrovascular complication of diabetes. The protective effects of CBD were studied in experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin in rats.

    CBD treatment prevented retinal cell death and vascular hyperpermeability in the diabetic retina. The treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy was one of the first therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids that has been evaluated with clinical trials.

    In the mid 's, a clinical trial indicated that delta9-THC was effective as an anti-nausea agent in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Although the anti-emetic action has been associated to delta9-THC, many users claim that marijuana suppresses nausea more effectively than oral delta9-THC.

    The association between a flavor and an emetic drug results in altered affective reactions, called conditioned rejection reactions, which reflect nausea. The rejection reactions gapes, chin rubs and paw treads that were elicited by lithium chloride and by a flavor paired with lithium chloride were suppressed by CBD and its synthetic dimethylheptyl homolog.

    Following three pairings of a novel distinctive contextual cue with the emetic effects of an injection of lithium chloride, the context acquired the potential to elicit conditioned retching in the absence of the toxin.

    The expression of this conditioned retching reaction was completely suppressed by CBD and delta9-THC, but not by ondansetron, a 5-HT 3 antagonist that interferes with acute vomiting in this species.

    In the mid 's, several cannabinoids, including CBD, were studied in cancer cells and the results observed with CBD were not promising. However, these experiments were performed with extremely high doses e. In , the interest in CBD as a potential anticancer drug was renewed with an investigation of its effect on glioma cells. In this study, CBD produced a modest reduction in the cell viability of C6 rat glioma cells, only evident after 6 days of incubation with the drug and only in a serum-free condition.

    The authors also showed for the first time that the antiproliferative effect of CBD was correlated to induction of apoptosis, as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis and single-strand DNA staining, which was not reverted by cannabinoid and vanilloid receptor antagonists. In this study, two different tumor cell lines transplanted to hairless mice were half as big as those of the untreated group, and both breast- and lung-cancer cells injected to paws showed approximately three times less metastatic invasion.

    CBD could down-regulate the Id-1 expression in aggressive human breast cancer cells, and the concentrations effective at inhibiting Id-1 expression correlated with those used to inhibit the proliferative and invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells. The precise mechanisms underlying CBD effects on apoptosis and tumor growth are not clear, and have recently been discussed in a review by Mechoulam. The plethora of CBD effects described above can be explained by its multiple mechanisms of action.

    The description and cloning of specific receptors for the cannabinoids in the nervous system have been a great contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of actions of cannabinoids.

    CBD desensitized VR1 to the action of capsaicin, thus opening the possibility that this cannabinoid exerts an anti-inflammatory action in part by desensitization of sensory nociceptors.

    CBD decreases the uptake of [3H] adenosine in both murine microglia and macrophages, and binding studies show that CBD binds to the equilibrative nucleoside transporter.

    As mentioned above, CBD prevents hydroperoxide H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damage equally well, or better than ascorbate vitamin C or tocopherol vitamin E. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions. The effects of CBD on pro-inflammatory cytokines and related compounds as well as its immunosuppressive effect have been reviewed above.

    It is important to highlight that many effects of CBD draw a bell-shaped dose-response curve, suggesting that the dose is a pivotal factor in CBD research. The wide range of CBD effects can be explained by the multiple mechanisms through which CBD acts, although further research is needed to clarify the precise mechanisms that underlie some of the potentially beneficial effects of CBD.

    Botany of natural Cannabis medicines. Grotenhermen F, Russo E, editors. The Haword Interactive Healing Press; Structure of cannabidiol, a product isolated from the marihuana extract of Minnesota wild hemp. J Am Chem Soc. Mechoulam R, Shvo Y. Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. Mechoulam R, Gaoni Y.

    The absolute configuration of delta-1tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent of hashish. Chemical basis of hashish activity. A tale of two cannabinoids: Discovery and characterization of endogenous cannabinoids. Mechoulam R, Hanus L. The pharmacological action of cannabidiol. Mechoulam R, Carlini EA. Toward drugs derived from cannabis. Kubena R, Barry H 3rd. Stimulus characteristics of marihuana components. Cannabidiol and cannabinol in man.

    Structure activity relationship of four tetrahydrocannabinols and the pharmacological activity of five semi-purified extracts of Cannabis sativa. The content of - 9 -trans-tetrahydrocannabinol 9-thc does not explain all biological activity of some Brazilian marihuana samples. Pharmacological interaction between cannabidiol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Cannabidiol interaction with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. Modification of delta9-THC-actions by cannabinol and cannabidiol in the rat. Cannabidiol interferes with the effects of delta 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Hollister LE, Gillespie H.

    Interactions in man of deltatetrahydrocannabinol. Influence of cannabidiol on deltatetrahydrocannabinol effects. Characteristics of the stimulus produced by the mixture of cannabidiol with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. Effects on variable-interval performance in rats of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, separately and in combination. Braz J Med Biol Res. Pharmacological interaction of the effects of delta 9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on serum corticosterone levels in rats.

    Effect of cannabis and certain of its constituents on pentobarbitone sleeping time and phenazone metabolism. Borys HK, Karler R. Cannabidiol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolism. In vitro comparison of mouse and rat liver crude microsome preparations. Jones G, Pertwee RG. A metabolic interaction in vivo between cannabidiol and 1 -tetrahydrocannabinol. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol CBD on the pharmacokinetics of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol THC after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract.

    Cannabidiol and its pharmacokinetic interaction with delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol. Interactions of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabinol and cannabidiol following oral administration in man. Assay of cannabinol and cannabidiol by mass fragmentography. Cannabidiol and cannabis sativa extract protect mice and rats against convulsive agents. Effect of cannabidiol and other Cannabis sativa compounds on hippocampal seizures discharges.

    Anticonvulsant properties of cannabidiol. Res Communic Chem Pathol Pharmacol. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Ames FR, Cridland S. Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol. S Afr Med J. Effects of cannabidiol and deltatetrahydrocannabinol on operant behavior. Hypnoticlike effects of cannabidiol in the rat. Hypnotic and antiepileptic effects of cannabidiol. Effect of cannabidiol on plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol in human volunteers.

    Effect of Deltatetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. Action of cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta 9-THC in normal subjects. Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Arquivos de Biologia e Tecnologia.

    Anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol. Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Cannabis. IRL Press Limited;

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