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Numerous ma- FBN noticed an increase of reports of people smoking chines had been devised for breaking and scutching hemp marijuana, which further increased in The stem in the middle. The law reduced the penalty for personal possession of an ounce In its Leary v. Possession of more than since it violated the Fifth Amendment privilege against an ounce was made a misdemeanor, making the maximum self-incrimination.
Prior to the law, the state had been spend- pealed the Marijuana Tax Act. CANNABIS Mandatory sentencing and three-strikes , In Gonzales the respondents criminal defendants argued because the cannabis in question had been grown, trans- During the Reagan Administration the Sentencing Reform ported, and consumed entirely within the state of Califor- Act provisions of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act nia, in compliance with California medical cannabis laws, of created the Sentencing Commission, which es- the defendants' activity did not implicate interstate com- tablished mandatory sentencing guidelines.
Therefore, the defendants argued, their activity Drug Abuse Act of reinstated mandatory prison sen- could not be regulated, and eventually prosecuted, by the tences, including large scale cannabis distribution.
Later an amendment created a three-strikes law, which cre- The U. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative plies. Oakland Cannabis Buyers' violating federal law.
However, the Obama administration has in- with a safe and reliable source of medical cannabis, infor- dicated that this practice may potentially be curtailed.
Decriminalization of non-medical cannabis created as a result of Controlled Substances Act of Raich judge ruled Randall needed cannabis for medical purposes and required the Food and Drug Administration set up Main article: Raich a program to grow cannabis on a farm at the University of Mississippi and to distribute cannabis cigarettes a Gonzales v.
In George H. Bush discontin- which the U. Thirteen people were medical cannabis programs are lawfully cultivating, pos- already enrolled and were allowed to continue receiv- sessing, or distributing medical cannabis, such persons or ing cannabis cigarettes; today the government still ships businesses are violating federal marijuana laws.
There- cannabis cigarettes to four people. Irvin Rosenfeld, who fore, under federal law violators are prosecuted because the became eligible to receive cannabis from the program in Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution grants to treat rare bone tumors, urged the George W. Decriminalization of non-medical March issued a white paper recommending a halt to cannabis in the United States and Legality of cannabis by using marijuana as a medicine in US states where it has been U.
The Commission found that the constitution- ality of cannabis prohibition was suspect and that the exec- drug policy of the United States to decriminalize cannabis. Stricter punishments exist for sale, cultivation, and proximity to schools. The introductory article concludes with the state- marijuana, instead making it a civil infraction punishable ment: Criminal penalties for cultivation and dis- take action on marijuana as it has been on other big issues.
The citizens use of cannabis. Hickenlooper explained to the media: Sup- this industry will create jobs. Similar to Portland, state law where 16, , the Denver City Council adopted an ordinance for only medical marijuana is legal will likely be enforced, as retail marijuana establishments.
Initiative 71 legalized the recreational usage of marijuana, with laws similar to those State-level legalization of Colorado and Washington. Unlike Ini- tiative , Amendment 64 allows personal cultivation of Territorial-level legalization up to 6 plants. Both provide for commercial cultivation and sales, subject to regulation and taxes. In December , the resolved. US Virgin Islands passed a bill that decriminalized posses- The city of Portland, Maine legalized the possession of up sion of cannabis up to an ounce.
As with The act: State and Territories, the Federal government will not inter- vene as long as the reservations regulate strict control over Would reschedule marijuana from a Sched- marijuana. Some domestic nations such as the Yakama Na- ule I to Schedule II drug to recognize it has ac- tion and the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council rejected the ap- cepted medical use, and would amend federal law proval to allow marijuana on their reservation.
The leg- islation would not legalize medical marijuana in all 50 states, rather it would respect the states 1. It was read twice and referred to the Com- The act has not yet been approved by the Congress. The intentions of the bill are to limit the application of Federal laws to the distribution and Respect State Marijuana Laws Act consumption of marijuana, and for other purposes. Drug court to drug policy reformation.
The conventional criminal court with the possibility of serving bill was approved by the House in September Should the of-  Jones, Nick A Celebration of Cannabis Cul- fender fail to comply with one or more of the requirements ture. Septem- ber 14, Retrieved March 9, Puts a Ban on Hashish. Hemp — American History Revisited. Retrieved September 4, Drug Use and Abuse 4th ed. Drug Problems 26 2. Retrieved February 13, Bureau of Chemistry Plant Which Crazes Its Addicts.
Whitebread and Richard J. A History of American Marihuana Prohibition. University of Virginia Law School. American and Canadian Plains, — The Life of William Randolph Hearst: Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, — University of Delaware Press. The Borderlands of the Ameri- University of Nebraska Press. Re- trieved May 26, Retrieved May 15, Re-  Rowe, Thomas C. Federal narcotics laws and the trieved March 25, Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement: Retrieved war on drugs. ISBN March 9, Commissioner of Narcotics and Will Oursler: The Murderers, the story of the narcotic  American Chemical Society: Dewey and Jason L.
Retrieved March 25, Retrieved  Hayo M. Randall Fortenbery and Michael Bennett: Is Industrial  Volz, Matt July 11, The Seattle Times Frank A. Retrieved April 20, Retrieved March  Pub.
Governor's Drug Policy mission Illinois to the Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved March 20, Illinois Legislative Investigating Commission. Retrieved July 7, Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved April 30, Retrieved Jan- uary 2, The New York Times. Retrieved July 28, trieved March 9, Retrieved May 26, Brief History of Social Problems: United States Department of State.
Retrieved cal thinking approach, Retrieved June 8, Retrieved May 26,  "http: Medical marijuana ruling puts spotlight on pend- ment of Justice, October 19, , http: San Francisco Bay Guardian.
Retrieved April 24, Cultural and Historical Perspectives. ISBN  http: New York Daily Retrieved May 29, The Denver cember 24, Post. Retrieved September 20, Re-  Nick Allen December 31, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved February 27, Retrieved November 16, Retrieved February 26, American history re- visited: It implies an overwhelming in- ufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of dictment of the behavior which we believe is not certain substances is regulated.
It was passed by the 91st appropriate. The actual and potential harm of use United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive of the drug is not great enough to justify intrusion Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of and signed by the criminal law into private behavior, a step into law by President Richard Nixon.
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. Congress has sometimes scheduled respects to liberalize, American drug policy. It elim- , which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate in Schedule I. States, and international treaties. The bill, as introduced by Senator Everett Dirksen, ran to 91 pages. While it was being drafted, the Uniform Controlled 1. Mitchell, was preparing a com- Substances.
This re- ber 11, Once the stances EPCS Under certain circumstances, the The Controlled Substances Act consists of 2 subchapters. In ad- ates lawful and unlawful manufacturing, distribution, and dition, 21 U. In any case, once these proceedings are complete, the temporary order is automatically vacated. Unlike ordinary scheduling pro- 1.
The ings to add, delete, or change the schedule of a drug or other cornerstone of this system is the registration of all those substance may be initiated by the DEA, the Department of authorized by the DEA to handle controlled substances. When a petition is received by the DEA, the agency begins its own investigation of the drug.
The prohibitions of the the equality of treaties and Congressional acts. Covert the Supreme Court of the United States addressed Constitution were designed to apply to all branches of the National Gov- both these issues directly and clearly holding: This Court has reg- Constitution. For example, in Geofroy v. It would not be con- which intimates that treaties and laws tended that it extends so far as to au- enacted pursuant to them do not have thorize what the Constitution forbids, to comply with the provisions of the or a change in the character of the Constitution.
It would treaties which concluded the Revo- be completely anomalous to say that a lutionary War, would remain in ef- treaty need not comply with the Con- fect. It would be manifestly con- stitution when such an agreement can trary to the objectives of those who be overridden by a statute that must created the Constitution, as well as conform to that instrument.
Congress and the President of the United a treaty obligation under the Convention States have the absolute sovereign right to withdraw from on Psychotropic Substances.
However, the Secretary has obligations violate the United States Constitution. If the Secretary agrees with the Commis- sion's scheduling decision, he can recommend that the At- torney General initiate proceedings to reschedule the drug 1. The temporary scheduling expires as scheme. The term does not include ing; however, control was required by the Convention on distilled spirits, wine, malt beverages, or tobacco, Psychotropic Substances.
It has been shown to be asso- ciated with an increase in seizures if taken alone. MDMA, it can produce neuroadaptations that can cause an increase in the potential for abuse of this 1. The drug or other substance has a high drug. The drug or other substance has no cur- the shrub Catha edulis khat. There is a lack of accepted safety for use of psychedelic drug that is widespread throughout the the drug or other substance under medical plant kingdom and endogenous to the human body.
The medical community orig- tion of a practitioner, except that in emergency situations, inally agreed upon placing it as a Schedule III sub- as prescribed by the Secretary by regulation after consulta- stance, but the government denied this suggestion, de- tion with the Attorney General, such drug may be dispensed spite two court rulings by the DEA's administrative upon oral prescription in accordance with section b law judge that placing MDMA in Schedule I was ille- of that Act 21 USC b.
With exceptions, an orig- gal. To provide relief, in , 21 C. The drug or other substances have a Dexmethylphenidate Focalin: The drug or other substance has a currently accepted obesity medical use in treatment in the United States.
Substances Act than for Schedule II though no schedule has Prior to October , formulations containing hy- provisions to address circumstances where the closed sys- drocodone and over-the-counter NSAIDs such as Ac- tem is unavailable, nonfunctioning or otherwise inadequate.
Drugs in this schedule include: The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse Xyrem is in Schedule III but with a restricted distribu- less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I tion system. The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the 1.
Abuse of the drug or other substance may Main article: Control measures are similar to Schedule III. The drug or other substance has a low within a six-month period.
A prescription for controlled potential for abuse relative to the drugs or substances in Schedules III, IV, and V issued by a practi- other substances in schedule IV tioner, may be communicated either orally, in writing, or 2. Abuse of the drug or other substance may Additionally, the law restricts an individual to the retail lead to limited physical dependence or psy- purchase of no more than three packages or 3.
A violation of this statute con- stitutes a misdemeanor. Retailers now commonly require No controlled substance in schedule V which is a drug PSE-containing products to be sold behind the pharmacy may be distributed or dispensed other than for a medical or service counter.
Difenoxin with atropine Motofen has drugs. Without atropine, these drugs are in Schedule II. That bill was then super- seded by the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of , which was passed as an amendment to the Patriot 1. Raich  The Act: Oakland Cannabis Buyers' Cooperative . Cato Handbook for Congress: It is an eclec- Archive copy at the Wayback Machine tic concept having only one uniform connotation: A Modern History vey on Drug Abuse. Their Derivatives  21 U.
Federal Register Drug ica: Clinical Toxicology 46 9: Clinical Toxicology 35 6: Drug harms in the UK: A multicriteria decision doi: The Lancet, , Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 3 September The most notable cannabinoid is the phy- doi: The botany and CBD is another major constituent of the plant.
CB1 re- ceptors are absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 Main article: While found only in the peripheral nervous system, a report does indicate that CB2 is ex- pressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum.
It is only mildly psychoactive. Cannabigerol Tetrahydrocannabinol Main article: CBG has been shown to promote apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in mice. Recent evidence shows that the compound counteracts cognitive impairment associated with the use of cannabis. Cannabichromene activity on human breast carcinoma by inhibiting cancer cell growth. CBD has been shown to play a role in preventing the short-term memory loss as- Biosynthesis Cannabinoid production starts when an sociated with THC.
For the propyl homo- chosis. Trials indicated it was safe and well tolerated. Cannabis plants can exhibit wide variation in the quantity and type of cannabinoids they produce. Selective breeding has been used to position of the double bond in the alicyclic carbon ring.
Under the dibenzopyran numbering system choactive chemicals like THC. Liquid chromatography LC techniques are also pounds. There have to the aromatic ring. In the most common of cannabis over time, but their accuracy is impeded by the homologue, the pentyl chain is replaced with a propyl 3- illegal status of the plant in many countries. Pharmacology Cannabinoids can be administered by smoking, vaporiz- ing, oral ingestion, transdermal patch, intravenous injec- Cannabinoids in other plants tion, sublingual absorption, or rectal suppository.
Once in the body, most cannabinoids are metabolized in the liver, Phytocannabinoids are known to occur in several plant especially by cytochrome P mixed-function oxidases, species besides cannabis.
Hydrocarbons and alcohols are often Most of the phytocannabinoids are nearly insoluble in wa- used as solvents. Butane may be used, which evap- organic solvents. Due to molecular similarity and ease of synthetic conver- All of these are members of a family of signalling sion, CBD was originally believed to be a natural precursor lipids called N-acylethanolamines, which also includes to THC.
Arachidonoylethanolamine nal immobility, and mild antinociception in mice. It binds primarily to the CB1 receptor, and only weakly to the CB2 receptor.
Anandamide is derived from N-Arachidonoyl dopamine arachidonic acid. Activation of cannabinoid receptors temporar- for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 TRPV1 , a member of ily reduces the amount of conventional neurotransmitter re- the vanilloid receptor family. Virodhamine cell depends on the nature of the conventional transmit- ter being controlled.
Al- is an increase in the excitability of the endocannabinoid- though it is a full agonist at CB2 and a partial agonist at releasing cell.
On the converse, when release of the ex- CB1 , it behaves as a CB1 antagonist in vivo. In rats, virod- citatory neurotransmitter glutamate is reduced, the net ef- hamine was found to be present at comparable or slightly fect is a decrease in the excitability of the endocannabinoid- lower concentrations than anandamide in the brain, but 2- releasing cell.
Lysophosphatidylinositol LPI Recent evidence has They cannot travel unaided for long distances in the aqueous highlighted lysophosphatidylinositol as the endogenous lig- medium surrounding the cells from which they are released, and to novel endocannabinoid receptor GPR55, making it and therefore act locally on nearby target cells. Hence, al- a strong contender as the sixth endocannabinoid. Function Endocannabinoids serve as intercellular 'lipid messengers', 1.
Although in this intercellular signaling role they are similar to the well-known monoamine neurotransmitters, Historically, laboratory synthesis of cannabinoids were of- such as acetylcholine and dopamine, endocannabinoids dif- ten based on the structure of herbal cannabinoids, and a fer in numerous ways from them.
For instance, they are large number of analogs have been produced and tested, used in retrograde signaling between neurons. Further- especially in a group led by Roger Adams as early as more, endocannabinoids are lipophilic molecules that are and later in a group led by Raphael Mechoulam. Newer not very soluble in water.
They are not stored in vesicles, compounds are no longer related to natural cannabinoids and exist as integral constituents of the membrane bilay- or are based on the structure of the endogenous cannabi- ers that make up cells. They are believed to be synthe- noids. The mechanisms and enzymes underlying the biosynthesis Synthetic cannabinoids are particularly useful in exper- of endocannabinoids remain elusive and continue to be an iments to determine the relationship between the struc- area of active research.
Endocannabinoids, on the other Medications containing natural or synthetic cannabinoids or hand, are described as retrograde transmitters because they cannabinoid analogs: Pharmacological Reviews 58 3: CB1 receptor inverse agonist once used as an anti- doi: It  Lambert, Didier M. Journal of Medic- inal Chemistry 48 Other notable synthetic cannabinoids include: Journal of Natural Products 79 2: Retrieved 6 June A Cellular and Molecular Approach.
Progress in Lipid Research 50 2: European Journal of Biochemistry 6: US Patent application number: Some physical and chemical fea- Bulletin on narcotics 32 2: Schizophrenia Research American Journal of Botany 91 6: British Journal of Pharmacol- ogy 7: Neurochemical Research 30 8: Behavioural Pharmacology 16 5—6: The Journal of Pharmacol-  http: Retrieved 6 October Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 43 Planta Medica 63 1: British Journal of Pharmacology 1: Journal of Chromatography A 2: Plant Physiology 4: The plant-derived yangonin is a novel CB1 recep- Pharmacological Research 66 2: Drug Metabolism Reviews 46 1: Pro-  Ashton CH February Br J Psychiatry 2: They are then slowly released back into other body Mayumi; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Takayama, Hiroaki; Waku, compartments, including the brain.
They are then slowly Keizo; Sugiura, Takayuki Journal nation half-life of THC is about 7 days, and complete elim- of Neurochemistry 85 6: Annual Review of Neu- Yu. Novel synthetic CB1 cannabinoid-receptor ligands and inhibitors of anandamide inactivation with  Grotenhermen, Franjo Life Sciences 65 6—7: Life Sciences 78 macology and Experimental Therapeutics 3: Journal of Medicinal Chem- istry 36 Update on Chemistry, new cannabinoid acids from Cannabis sativa L.
Med can Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 0 0: Drug and Chemical Schatz, Anthony R. Oc- cal Pharmacology 50 1: Journal of Neuroscience 28 Science Rehnelt, J. In , the binding of several cannabinoids Journal of Natural Products 44 1: Cannabinoids bind reversibly and stereo-selectively to the cannabinoid receptors. Subtype se- lective cannabinoids have been developed which theoreti- cally may have advantages for treatment of certain diseases 1. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 Cannabinoid receptor type 1 CB1 receptors are thought to be one of the most widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors in the brain.
This is due to endocannabinoid- mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, a very common form of short-term plasticity in which the depolarization of a single neuron induces a reduction in GABA-mediated neurotransmission. Endocannabinoids released from the depolarized post-synaptic neuron bind to CB1 receptors in the pre-synaptic neuron and cause a re- CB1 and CB2 structures. Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are They are also found in other parts of the body.
For instance, part of the Endocannabinoid system which is involved in a in the liver, activation of the CB1 receptor is known to in- variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain- crease de novo lipogenesis.
A study suggested that the endocannabinoids and their Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane cannabinoid receptors play a major role during pre- and receptors under the G protein-coupled receptor superfam- postnatal development.
All of the endo- 1. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 There are currently two known subtypes of cannabinoid re- ceptors, termed CB1 and CB2. The CB2 hematopoietic cells. They also have a function in receptor is expressed mainly in the immune system and in keratinocytes. They are also expressed on peripheral nerve hematopoietic cells. In the brain, they are mainly expressed and non-CB2 , which are expressed in endothelial cells and by microglial cells, where their role remains unclear.
This ef- through activation of GPR Sub- sequent studies showed that GPR55 does indeed respond to cannabinoid ligands. CB2 is expressed erated naturally inside the body endocannabinoids or in- in osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. CB2 agonists en- troduced into the body as cannabis or a related synthetic hance endocortical osteoblast number and activity while re- compound. PMID Several synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to bind to One of the described compounds, a classical TI THC-type cannabinoid, L,, in which the phenolic —4.
Certain tumors, especially gliomas, express CB2 receptors. PMID and smoking cessation see Rimonabant.
CB1 provides neuroprotection after brain injury. Journal of Molecular Modeling 17 9: Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. Addict Biol 13 2: J Am Coll Cardiol. PMID tive stress and cell death in murine models of doxorubicin- Free Radic Biol Med. Drug  Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R International Union of Basic doi: Not to be confused with cannabinol or cannabinodiol. Retrieved 11 June It is a catastrophic form of intractable epilepsy that begins in infancy.
Epidiolex was granted fast- track status and is in late stage trials following positive 1. At room temperature, it is a col- receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of their orless crystalline solid. FEBS Letters Nagaraja, Kodihalli Nanjappa, Synthesis of delta- are considered hemp, or considered marijuana. Tetrahydrocannabinol Isomerism, Abnormal cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp also commonly-termed cannabidiol.
UK Cannabidiol, in an oral-mucosal spray formulation Soc. PMID tion product available for relief of severe spasticity due to Epilepsia Review 55 6: Retrieved 15 December Phytother Res  Angus, Chen 8 December Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 7 January PMID Free full text Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M March Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 5: Drug Metabolism and Disposition 23 8: British Journal of Pharmacology 7: PMID ogy 2: Joca SR January Statement on a non- cannabidiol in mice: Retrieved 21 July Tetrahedron Letters 26 8: Journal of Experimental Botany 60 Not to be confused with cannabidiol or cannabinodiol.
Cannabinol CBN is a weak psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis sativa and  Fournier, G. CBN is then formed by de- doi: Journal of Medic- inal Chemistry 43 Cannabis drug and Hemp  David R.
They can also be used as caged-bird feed, as they provide a moder-  Sigma-Aldrich Co. A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 12—13 hours of light per day to stay veg- etative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day. In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.
In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5. A nominal if not legal distinction is often made between industrial hemp, with concentrations of psy- and ointments have also been common preparations. In choactive compounds far too low to be useful for that traditional medicine of India in particular C.
Male plants shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seed ripening on the female plants. Although genetic factors dispose a plant to become male or female, environmental factors includ- ing the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression.
These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes. THC ratios are less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa. Synthetic THC, called dronabinol, cannabis. Re- trieved 28 May Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 1 1: Drug Testing and Analysis 4 Journal of Industrial Hemp 8 2: Botanical Gazette 71 Retrieved 28 May Flavour and Fragrance Journal 16 4: Cannabis indica, formally known as Cannabis sativa forma indica, is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family.
Indica strains tend to have wide, short leaves with indica. Lamarck based his description of the newly named short wide blades, whereas sativa strains have long leaves species on plant specimens collected in India.
Richard with thin long blades. The buds of indica strains tend to be Evans Schultes described C. Schultes's and Anderson's descriptions may have originated from the Hindu Kush mountain range. These are merely comparative values, we must not in- summers climate of those parts, C. The reverse is generally true with a ratio of CBD being aver- age in most cannabis strains.
The medical interests in Bangladesh and Pakistan are traditionally cultivated for Cannabis are taking this further and we will see more strains the production of charas. THC ratios are nia and an anxiolytic, as opposed to sativa's more common less likely to induce anxiety than vice versa.
Users can ex- and Northern Lights. This is mainly because of the higher CBD: Marijuana Grower's Handbook Ask 1. Phytochemistry 71 1. Harvard University Botanical Archives, , p. Harvard Uni- Police Science and Administration, , p. Retrieved 30 May Phytochemistry 71 Biology 12 Morocco Rif on geopium.
Amsterdam Marijuana Seeds Seed Bank. Cannabis ruderalis is a species of Cannabis originating in central Russia. It is less common than the other species of  McPartland, J. Without human selection, these plants 1. Retrieved 15 July Berke- early s in order to enhance the breeding program of ley, California: Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content than either C.
A World sativa or C. Cannabis ruderalis strains are high pp. Cannabis Culture medical marijuana users. Retrieved 16 February The Cannabis Breeder's Bible: Green Candy reputed resistance to insect and disease pressures makes it Press.
An Ad- vanced Study. Cannabis Culture Mag- azine. Dutch Passion Seed Company. Re- trieved 15 July This all depends on the Hashish Trail, only small pieces of Lebanese hashish were process and amount of solvent left over. It is believed that massive hashish pro- Northern India has a long social tradition in the production duction for international trade originated in Morocco dur- of hashish, known locally as charas, which is believed to ing the s, where the cannabis plant was widely avail- be the same plant resin as was burned in the ceremonial able.
He particularly mentioned the Egyptian Hashish. At around the same time, American author Fitz Hugh Ludlow wrote the book The Hasheesh Eater about his youthful experiences, both positive and negative, with the drug.
The resulting powder, referred to 1. Ice-water separation is an- male plant contain the most trichomes, though trichomes other mechanical method of isolating trichomes. The clar- are also found on other parts of the plant. Nowadays, new techniques have been developed, such duce large amounts of trichomes.
The resin reservoirs of as heat and pressure separations, static-electricity sieving or the trichomes, sometimes erroneously called pollen ven- acoustical dry sieving. John Huyghen van Linschoten to the East Indies. Full text at Internet Archive.
This leaves most of the glands intact. Drugs, behavior, and modern soci- In a study conducted in by Jean-Jaques Fil- ety. The War on Drugs II. World They are of diverse structure and function. Examples are  Hashish! A covering of any kind of hair on a plant is an indumentum, and the sur-  Merlin, M.
Table 1 re Taiwan and p. The same term is applied to such structures in Atibba, Berkeley: University of California Press, Sticky trichomes of a carnivorous plant, Drosera capensis with a 1. Aerial surface hairs Trichomes on plants are epidermal outgrowths of various kinds. The terms emergences or prickles refer to out- growths that involve more than the epidermis.
This distinc- tion is not always easily applied see Wait-a-minute tree. Also, there are nontrichomatous epidermal cells that pro- trude from the surface. A common type of trichome is a hair. Plant hairs may be unicellular or multicellular, branched or unbranched. Multicellular hairs may have one or several layers of cells. Branched hairs can be dendritic tree-like as in kangaroo paw Anigozanthos , tufted, or stellate star-shaped , as in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Another common type of trichome is the scale or peltate hair, that has a plate or shield-shaped cluster of cells at- tached directly to the surface or borne on a stalk of some kind. Common examples are the leaf scales of bromeliads such as the pineapple, Rhododendron and sea buckthorn Trichomes on Cannabis, rich in cannabinoids.
Any of the various types of hairs may be glandular, pro- In describing the surface appearance of plant organs, such ducing some kind of secretion, such as the essential oils as stems and leaves, many terms are used in reference to the produced by mints and many other members of the fam- presence, form, and appearance of trichomes.
The most ba- ily Lamiaceae. However, several basic functions or advantages of having surface hairs can be listed. Hairs on plants growing in areas subject to frost keep the frost away from the living surface cells.
In ad- dition, in locations where much of the available moisture comes from fog drip, hairs appear to enhance this process. Root hairs Root hairs, the rhizoids of many vascular plants, are tubu- Epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana with a trichome.
That is, root hairs are lateral ex- tensions of a single cell and only rarely branched. Details are provided by: Root hairs can sur- 1. At the same time new root hairs are continually being formed at the top Plants may use trichomes in order to deter herbivore attack of the root.
This way, the root hair coverage stays the same. However, some or- most part. This is why planting out may cause plants to wilt. Principles of an- giosperm taxonomy. Journal of the Foren- sic Science Society 13 3: Journal of The Royal Society Interface 10 Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 2. Her- European wool carder bee Anthidium manicatum. This bivore Handling of a Plant's Trichome: The Case of Helico- bee species incorporates trichomes into their nests by scrap- nius Charithonia L.
Plant Anatomy, 2nd Edition. For recre- ational marijuana, see Cannabis drug. For other uses, see Hemp disambiguation. Then it ap- textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, pears to have been borrowed into Latin, and separately into biofuel, food, and animal feed. However, this theory assumes that hemp tions and uses. When oxidized commonly referred Nutrition Further information: They Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well.
The leaves of the hemp for dehulled hemp seed. Hemp can also be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such Hemp seeds are a rich source of B vitamins, the dietary as hemp milk, hemp juice, and tea. Completed in , The Renewable House is one of the most techno- logically advanced made from hemp-based materials. Hemp plaster has insulative qualities.
Various car mak- Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been ers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including used as an insulating material for construction. Another issue paper, made from hemp, dates to the early Western Han is that the entire hemp plant cannot be economically pre- Dynasty, two hundred years before the nominal invention of pared for paper production. Hemp pulp is bleached with hydrogen peroxide, a pro- The Saint Petersburg, Russia, paper mill of Goznak opened cess today also commonly used for wood pulp.
It used hemp as its main input material. The market is considered saturated with little or no growth in this area. Hemp jewelry Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine Hemp rope. Hemp and bead Jewelry. Hemp jewellery in- cludes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches and other adornments.
Some jewellery features beads made from glass, stone, wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. Hemp rope was phased out when Manila, which animal bedding horses, for instance , or for horticultural does not require tarring, became widely available. Additionally Hemp is being used to clean con- taminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site.
By way of a process which is known as phytoremediation - the process of clearing radioisotopes as well as a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air. Due to its rapid, dense growth characteristics, in some jurisdictions hemp is considered a prohibited noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom. Biofuels Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks and alcohol fuel ethanol or, less commonly, methanol from the fermentation of the whole plant.
Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. HEMP 99 would perform very poorly as sources of drug material. Today, however, the common perception of the industrial hemp plant is generally negative and associated with the drug marijuana.
Hemp needs less fertilizer than corn does. Organic fertilizers such as manure can utilize industrial hemp well. Neither weeds nor crop protection measures are necessary. Typically, hemp contains Cannabis sativa L.
Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any phys- adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters. Water logged acidic, compressed or extremely light suited for industrial hemp, but it also has medicinal varieties.
Steep and high altitudes of more than m above sea level are best avoided. Seeds can germinate down to degrees. Hemp needs a lot of heat, so earlier varieties come to maturation. Up to 3 feet growing roots into the soil can also use water supplies from deeper soil layers. For this reason, it is generally grown before winter cereals. Advantageous Industrial hempseed harvesting machine in France. Since hemp is very self-compatible, it can also be grown The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days.
List of hemp diseases process known as thermomechanical pulping. HEMP cellaneous pathogens. Environmental impact Hemp is considered by a study in Environmental Eco- nomics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US con- text compared to typical benchmarks. For an There is smaller production in Europe, Chile and North Ko- annual yield of this level is it in Ontario recommended to rea.
Over thirty countries produce industrial hemp, includ- add nitrogen N: British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development.
Yields in Kent County, have of hemp during the early s. The state of Victoria was averaged 8. Statistic for the European Approximately one tonne of bast Drugs Misuse Act The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance, and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government.
However, it is estimated that at least 2. The use of hemp in Taiwan dates back at have passed laws enabling hemp licensure. All four states least 10, years. The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause.
In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited, but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese-controlled areas. It ought, all of it, to be sown again; that not only a of the upper Potomac.
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