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Table 2 represents the fitting parameters values and the sum of squared errors of Chrastil equation. Table 2 and Fig. The sum of the squared error value of the data fitting is 0. Chrastil plot of acetophenone solubility in scCO 2 as a function of temperature and density.
From the value of parameter a in the Table 2 , the total enthalpies of vaporization and solvation of the solute can be estimated to be The negative value of the parameter a means that the associating process is an endothermic process. The value of association number k obtained from the fitting of data is 2. It means that one molecule of acetophenone associates with 2.
As mentioned before, the advantages of using Chrastil equation are the model does not require any physical-chemical property data of the solute [ 13 S. Ayucitra, "Solubility of azadirachtin in supercritical carbon dioxide at several temperatures", J. Therefore, this equation is applicable in most cases.
Del Valle and Aguilera [ 14 J. Aguilera, "An improved equation for predicting the solubility of vegetable oils in supercritical CO 2 ", J. This equation can fit the experimental data well as shown in Fig. The parameters obtained from the fitting experimental data are given in Table 3.
Del valle and aguilera plot of acetophenone solubility in scCO 2 as a function of temperature and density. The value of association number k obtained is 2. That means one molecule of acetophenone associates with 2. Since Del Valle and Aguilera model was developed based on the Chrastil model, therefore, the value of the parameter k in this model is similar to the Chrastil equation.
Del Valle-Aguilera model is a modification of Chrastil model with addition one parameter in order to consider the impact of changing temperature.
Table 3 and Fig. The sum of squared errors percentage of the data is 0. It shows a significant consistency of this model with the experimental data. In this paper, the experimental solubility data of acetophenone in the supercritical CO 2 were also correlated using an equation of state. For a multicomponent mixture, the parameters a and b in Peng-Robinson can be correlated using Van der Waals mixing rules:. To calculate the values of a ij and b ij , a combining rule was needed.
The classical quadratic [ 15 H. Sandler, Modeling Vapor-Liquid Equilibria: Where a i and a j are the Peng-Robinson parameters for pure component i and j calculated from. While b i and b j are obtained from Eq. One such combining rule also has been proposed previously by Stryjek and Vera [ 16 R. A cubic equation of state for accurate vapor—liquid equilibria calculations", Can.
Where k ij , k ji , and l ij are the binary interaction parameters and obtained by fitting the experimental data; x i and x j are the solute and solvent mole fraction, respectively. The binary interactions obtained from the fitting are summarized in Table 5. The parameter k ij is found to increase with increasing temperature.
However, the parameter l ij does not have the dependency with temperature, as can be seen the inconsistency of its trend with temperature. Correlation of the experimental solubility data of acetophenone using peng-robinson EoS with quadratic combining rule. Table 6 and Fig. It can be seen from Table 6 that the value of k ij is found to decrease with increasing temperature.
However, the parameters k ji and l ij do not have the consistent trend with temperature, and may be considered essentially constant because it has a small change with temperature. Correlation of the experimental solubility data of acetophenone using peng-robinson EOS with stryjek-vera combining rule. The binary interaction parameters obtained, k ij and l ij , account for the solute-solvent energetic interactions and size and shape differences, respectively.
Change of temperature and pressure essentially not affected to the binary interaction parameter k ij and l ij. Therefore, these parameters may be used directly to predict the solubility at other temperatures by using the Peng-Robinson Equation of State model [ 17 P.
Solubility data of acetophenone in supercritical carbon dioxide at various pressure and temperature were obtained in this study. Quadratic and Stryjek-Vera models were used as combining rules in correlating the experimental data with Peng-Robinson equation of state. The results shown that those models are able to correlate the solubility data of acetophenone in supercritical CO 2.
Thanks for the support of Marine public welfare industry research special funds project" Research and application of integrated submarine pipeline detection technology and risk assessment technology" item number: This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community.
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Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Announcing New Journal Website. Abstract The solubility data of acetophenone in supercritical carbon dioxide scCO2 were measured using a static method at several temperatures Acetophenone, equation of state, semi empirical model, solubility, static mode, supercritical fluid. Suppl-1, M4 First Page: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.
Table 1 Experimental data of the solubility of acetophenone in supercritical carbon dioxide. Density Based Models The density-based equations, are the most widely used models to correlate the solubility of various compounds in supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and do not require any critical physical properties.
His semiempirical model has the mathematical form as follows: Equation of State Model In this paper, the experimental solubility data of acetophenone in the supercritical CO 2 were also correlated using an equation of state. Table 4 The pure component parameters for peng-robinson EoS. Chiew, "Solubility of aspirin in supercritical carbon dioxide with and without acetone", J. Endorsements "Open access will revolutionize 21 st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines.
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Limonene was the principal component extracted, the optimum conditions for limonene Furthermore, the effect of CO2 flow rate and particle size of orange peel was studied in the range Do you want to read the rest of this article? of particle size and the effect of mass flow of CO 2 on the extraction rate of essential oil. This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by DigitalCommons @URI. properties of supercritical C02 are summarized in Table 2. 4. to an uniform condition within the nucleating medium, and hence in principle to narrow . Table The density of carbon dioxide from the Bender equation and .. Supercritical CO2 is the most commonly used solvent in extraction processes, .. make use of the RESS process to reduce the particle size and narrow the.