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Pediatri / genetikk Flashcards | Quizlet
Hva er atopisk marsj? Allergen route of exposure? Hvordan diagnostisere allergi hos barn? Hva er behandling for anafylaktisk sjokk hos barn? Hirschsprung, cleft lip palate. Hva er penetrance og variabel ekspressivitet? Hvordan er mutasjoner klassifisert? Deletions, duplications, translocations, aso. DNA sequence alterations within a gene. Hvilke agens er vanlig ved neonatal sepsis? Barn med meningitt uten petekkier; sannsynlig agens?
Normal RR i forskjellige aldersgrupper? Agens ved pneumoni spedbarn? Difficult to suck from the breast cannot create negative oral pressure 2 Hearing problems: Cannot ventilate the middle ear as the muscles m.
In cases with cleft palate the auditory tube cannot be opened properly. This may cause middle ear effusion. Hearing problems will decrease language input and may delay language development.
The cleft palate itself may also lead to speech problems. Symptomer og lokalisasjon av osteomyelitt? Hvor kan tub manifestere seg hos barn? Hva er standard behandling TB? Hvilke typer genetisk testing har vi? Klinefelter 47,XXY fysiske karakteristikker? Hva kjennetegner et GTK-anfall?
Grunner til epilepsi som ikke grunner i brain dysfunction? Hva kjennetegner et fokalt anfall? Please describe how the circulation of a newborn changes after birth compared to the fetal circulation.
With the first breaths, the lungs get filled with air and the pulmonary blood flow increases pulmonary vascular resistance decreases. The placenta is a low resistance reservoir, and when the cord is cut and placenta is excluded from the circulation the systemic resistance increases. Thus the left atrial pressure rises and the right atrial pressure falls when compared to fetal life. This causes the foramen ovale to close. Also the ductus arteriosus will close within hours to days.
Please explain the physiological mechanisms involved when prolactin is secreted and how prolactin stimulates milk production. Prolactin is secreted as the result of a neuro-endocrine response. With suckling, sensory fibers around area mamma will carry impulses to the brain which will connect to hypothalamic centers and maintain the lack of prolactin secretion inhibition which in the non-lactating state is believed to be dopamine.
Prolactin receptors on the glandular epithelium are stimulated and will maintain the mammary gland cells in the secretory state galactopoiesis. This mechanism secures a coupling between the babies need and the milk production Minimum: Reasonable answer including at least of the underlined sentences.
Please indicate 4 central clinical findings when examining a child with a possible airway infection. General appearance "Allmenntilstand" 2. Chest retractions subcostal, intercostal, suprasternal etc. Findings on auscultation rhonchi, crackles, asymmetry, diminished breath sounds. Note that auscultation findings in small children may be difficult to interpret 7.
Please describe the typical age group and clinical characteristics of patients who are diagnosed with "Breath holding spells".
Most common between months of age Two different types cyanotic and pallid: Cyanotic breath-holding spells Usually precipitated by anger or frustration or pain Child cries and has forced expiration sometimes leading to cyanosis, loss of muscle tone, and loss of consciousness Pallid breath-holding spells Common stimulus a painful event Turns pale, loses consciousness with little if any crying Diagnosis is clinically and based on a good history including the sequence of events, lack of incontinence and no postictal phase.
Please describe briefly important conditions that should be ruled out in infants with regurgitations. Please list three characteristics "risk factors" among children prone to child abuse. Adopted children, foster children E. Please describe typical localization of atopic dermatitis in a small child.
Please describe central principles of treatment of atopic dermatitis. Please describe at least four symptoms or signs that may indicate that a child has a severe infection. Grey or cyanotic skin 4. Reduced level of consciousness 7. Complications in childhood due to obesity? Please list minimum 3 symptoms that would make you suspect that an endocrine disease might be the underlying factor for obesity in a child.
Poor growth constipation low heart rate lethargy buffalo hump moonface, hypertension muscle wasting bone loss glucose intolerance neonatal hypoglycemia micropenis. Please mention minimum 3 common causes of communication delay in children. Lack of stimulation 4. General developmental delay 6. Mention cause of delay in motor functions. CP - Neuromuscular disorder e. Duchennes - Any cause of global developmental delay.
Causes of global developmental delay? Please mention at least 2 routine screening examinations that are aiming to provide an early diagnosis of an infant with CHD.
Most of these have low SaO2. Upper respiratory tract symptoms tachypnea retractions wheezing prolonged expiratory phase low oxygen saturation. Please describe short at least 4 typical clinical symptoms and signs of dehydration in children?
A history of reduction in urine output 2. Dry mucous membranes 5. Deep respirations, with or without an increase in respiratory rate 7. Decreased tear production 8. In infants - an open fontanel will be sunken on physical examination 9. Decreased skin turgor Cool and mottled extremities Please indicate how febrile seizures are classified, the typical age group for febrile seizures and prognosis of febrile seizures.
Simple and complex febrile seizures. Complex febrile seizures are defined by one of the following: Multiple seizures; occur more than once in a h period 2. Mainly very good prognosis.
Very low risk of later epilepsy just mildly increased risk by x. Please describe short at least 3 common side effects of anti-epileptic drugs. Side effects from CNS cognition, memory, neuropsychiatric, etc. Psychomotor development is classified into several areas. Gross motor development Gross motor skills, Primitive reflexes, postural responses 2. Fine motor development Fine motor skills 3. Communication Non-verbal, speech and language, hearing 4.
Psychological emotions, behavioural, social. Please list the most important perinatal risk factors for developing CP. After severe perinatal asphyxia 3. High bilirubin levels kern icterus 4. Meningitis in the neonatal period. Please describe the most common typical clinical presentation of a child with celiac disease. Please mention at least two 2 indications to treat a child with otitis media with antibiotics and mention which antibiotic would be your first choice for patients in general practice in Norway.
Indications if assumed to be caused by bacterial agent: GM is a highly cellular and vascularized region in the brain from which cells migrate out during brain development. It is the source of both neurons nerve cells and glial cells in the fetal period.
GM is most active proliferation between weeks gestation.