Clenbuterol En Animales Pdf

Content:
  • No document with DOI "10.1.1.984.3515"
  • Clenbuterol - Wikipedia
  • CiteSeerX — Document Not Found
  • Que Es Clembuterol Y Para Que Sirve, Clembuterol Efectos Secundarios A Corto Y Largo Plazo, Clen

    No document with DOI "10.1.1.984.3515"

    clenbuterol en animales pdf Direct mass spectrometry analysis of metabolic effects of clenbuterol and salbutamol on pork quality at the molecular level is incredibly beneficial for food regulations, public health and the development of new anti-obesity drugs. With internal extractive electrospray ionization mass clenbutero iEESI-MSnutrients including creatine, amino acids, L-carnitine, vitamin B clenbuterol en animales pdfcarnosine and phosphatidylcholines in pork tissue were identified, without sample pretreatment, using collision-induced dissociation CID experiments and by comparison with clenbuterol en animales pdf compounds. Furthermore, normal pork samples were clearly differentiated from pork clenbuterol en animales pdf with clenbuterol and salbutamol via principal component analysis PCA. Correlation analysis performed on the spectral data revealed that the above-mentioned nutrients strongly correlated with pork quality, and the absolute intensity of animalew in normal pork was much higher than tren ave madrid barcelona contaminated by clenbuterol and salbutamol. Our findings suggested that clenbuterol and salbutamol may render effects on the activity of carnitine acyltransferase I, hence the process that L-carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria and the formation of phosphatidylcholines might be affected.

    Clenbuterol - Wikipedia

    clenbuterol en animales pdf

    Direct mass spectrometry analysis of metabolic effects of clenbuterol and salbutamol on pork quality at the molecular level is incredibly beneficial for food regulations, public health and the development of new anti-obesity drugs. With internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry iEESI-MS , nutrients including creatine, amino acids, L-carnitine, vitamin B 6 , carnosine and phosphatidylcholines in pork tissue were identified, without sample pretreatment, using collision-induced dissociation CID experiments and by comparison with authentic compounds.

    Furthermore, normal pork samples were clearly differentiated from pork samples with clenbuterol and salbutamol via principal component analysis PCA. Correlation analysis performed on the spectral data revealed that the above-mentioned nutrients strongly correlated with pork quality, and the absolute intensity of phosphatidylcholines in normal pork was much higher than pork contaminated by clenbuterol and salbutamol.

    Our findings suggested that clenbuterol and salbutamol may render effects on the activity of carnitine acyltransferase I, hence the process that L-carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria and the formation of phosphatidylcholines might be affected. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of clenbuterol and salbutamol on carnitine acyltransferase I requires more comprehensive studies in future work. However, the residues of these chemicals pose potential hazards to human health, with serious symptoms such as muscular tremors, cardiac palpitations, headaches, and muscular pain, even cause life threatening cardiovascular and central nervous disease by increasing liver mass, changing enzyme activity, and alternating blood cell proportions and hormone levels 9 , Based on chemical properties moisture, ash, fat and protein and physical properties pH, tenderness, cooking shrinkage and welted holding capacity , the effects of clenbuterol on meat quality of growing male pig were analyzed To investigate the metabolic effects of clenbuterol and salbutamol on meat quality of mammals e.

    Thus, novel analytical protocols are demanded to record the molecular profiling of the metabolites in the native state of pork tissue. Moreover, correlation analysis performed on the spectral data revealed that some nutrients strongly correlated with pork quality, and the absolute intensities of phosphatidylcholines in normal pork samples were much higher than in the samples contaminated by clenbuterol and salbutamol.

    These findings suggested that clenbuterol and salbutamol may render effects on the activity of carnitine acyltransferase I, hence the formation of phosphatidylcholines might be affected. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms of clenbuterol and salbutamol on carnitine acyltransferase I require more comprehensive studies in future work.

    It should be noted that significant differences were observed between the mass spectra of three types of pork samples. As shown in Fig. And it could be seen from PCA loading plots Fig. Moreover, it could be evidently seen from normal pork Fig. Overall, there was no regular correlation relationship of above-mentioned compounds in pork contaminated by clenbuterol Fig.

    Lysine, as a precursor of L-carnitine, is absorbed by the gut, and part of it synthesizes N-trimethyllysine in a reaction catalyzed by aminotransferase, ultimately, N-trimethyllysine is catalyzed by a series of enzymes to form L-carnitine. L-carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound, which is involved in the energy metabolism and yielded from lysine and methionine or taken up with diet. As their correlation associations shown in Fig.

    L-carnitine plays an important physiological role in lipid metabolism, especially in the transport of long-chain fatty acids into inner mitochondrial, and fatty acids play a key role in formation of phosphatidylcholines.

    However, these techniques mainly conduct analysis on the sample surface that may not exactly reflect the chemical content within the bulk volume. Based on the modification of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ESI-MS , probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry PESI-MS 33 , paper spray ionization mass spectrometry 27 and tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry TSI-MS 34 — 37 have the been developed to analyze biofluids and tissue samples, which further extended the application scope of ambient MS.

    In TSI-MS analysis, analyte molecules can be directly sprayed and ionized from the solvent-wetted tissues when the application of a high voltage Hence stable and continuous electrospray plume is produced in front of MS inlet.

    In addition, previous literatures reported that iEESI-MS has been successfully used for direct profiling of various biological tissue samples, with satisfactory qualitative and quantitative performance. In this regard, the iEESI-MS is a suitable technique for profiling of pork tissue samples, and visualization the metabolic effects of clenbuterol and salbutamol on pork meat quality at molecular level.

    In this study, metabolic effects of clenbuterol and salbutamol on pork quality were directly evaluated by iEESI-MS at the molecular level. According to the correlation relationship of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholines in three types of pork samples showed in Fig. This could be proposed that clenbuterol and salbutamol may render effects on the activity of carnitine acyltransferase I, which regulated biosynthesis reaction from long-chain acyl-CoA and L-carnitine to acylcarntine and CoA, therefore, the process of long chain acyl-CoA into the mitochondria compartment and the formation of phosphatidylcholines might be affected.

    Besides, as shown in Fig. For example, previous studies on farm animals indicated that the highest accumulation of clenbuterol and salbutamol is to be expected in pigmented tissues, such as eye and hair, which can be explained by their high melanin binding affinity, liposolubility, and pH gradient between blood and hair Irrespective of the applied dose, salbutamol residue concentration is generally lower in quantity compared with clenbuterol residue concentration However, clenbuterol takes part into the biotransformation including both Phase I and Phase II metabolism, yielding various metabolites detected in the urine of different animals Our findings proposed that clenbuterol and salbutamol may render effects on the activity of carnitine acyltransferase I, and the process that L-carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria and the formation of phosphatidylcholines might be affected.

    Specifically, L-carnitine could affect the lipids metabolism, studies reported that increases in L-carnitine level in the liver and serum may accelerate the transport of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase to mitochondria, enhance the oxidation of fatty acids and decrease liver and serum triglyceride TG And L-carnitine could reduce the deposition of fat in animal bodies by decreasing the formation of fat These might herald that carnitine acyltransferase I and acyl-CoA synthase related to fatty acids metabolism were of special interest for further study.

    All animal care and experimentations conducted were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanchang University in accordance with the guidelines of Gan Dong Eighteen two month-old male Gandong black pigs were cultured in the identical environment and administrated with the same diet in the same way.

    All of these pigs were castrated during lactation, and the weight of these pigs was in the same level. They were mainly fed with coarse feed including bran and vegetables three times a day, once in the morning, afternoon and evening, respectively.

    The pork samples analyzed were all lean tissues on the same sites of the left shoulders of different pigs, which were provided by Sports Science Institute of Jiangxi Province. In this study, one pig provided one sample, a total of 18 pork samples from 18 pigs control group including 9 normal pork samples, experimental group including 2 pork samples with clenbuterol and 7 pork samples with salbutamol were experimentally analyzed using iEESI-MS, one sample analyzed 6 times.

    To standardize the sample operation, the tissue samples from identical sections were cut into a fixed shape with the thickness of 3 mm and the side length of 10 mm for each analysis. All amino acids authentic compounds such as valine, histidine, arginine and lysine were purchased from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co.

    All standard solutions were prepared in deionized water and then used for ESI-MS analysis without further treatment. A , which was equipped with Xcalibur software for instrument control and data processing. Schematic illustration of iEESI-MS for direct characterization of bulk tissue samples was as described in previous literatures 20 — A under positive ion detection mode.

    Standard solution charged with 4. Nitrogen gas Jiangxi Guoteng Gas Co. Other parameters were set as default values of the instrument, no further optimization was performed. In order to obtain better results, some parameters such as the volume and shape of pork samples, the distance between ESI capillary tip and sample edges as well as the distance between sample edges and inlet of mass spectrometry should be kept fixed. PCA was used to recognize the pattern based on the mass spectral raw data using the Matlab version 7.

    All of the mass spectral data expressed in signal intensity were further loaded into the Matlab software for PCA analysis. When exporting mass spectra data into Microsoft Excel, a total of data points form 18 pork samples six data points per sample on average were interpreted in the score graphs of the PCA. Person correlation analysis using SPSS The relative abundance of nutrients with p value of less than 0.

    The result of person correlation analysis was exported into Microsoft Excel for further picture presentation by program in Matlab. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jul China Find articles by Haiyan Lu. China Find articles by Hua Zhang. China Find articles by Tenggao Zhu. China Find articles by Yipo Xiao. China Find articles by Shaoxian Xie. China Find articles by Haiwei Gu. China Find articles by Meng Cui. China Find articles by Liping Luo. Received Feb 16; Accepted May To view a copy of this license, visit http: Abstract Direct mass spectrometry analysis of metabolic effects of clenbuterol and salbutamol on pork quality at the molecular level is incredibly beneficial for food regulations, public health and the development of new anti-obesity drugs.

    Open in a separate window. Table 1 Identification of part of the nutrients in pork samples. Differentiation of normal pork and pork with clenbuterol and salbutamol 3D-PCA score plots further revealed the meat quality differences between normal pork and pork contaminated by clenbuterol and salbutamol.

    Methods Pork samples All animal care and experimentations conducted were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanchang University in accordance with the guidelines of Gan Dong Notes Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

    Zhang ZH, et al. Li C, et al. Huang LL, et al. Duvivier WF, et al. Bui QA, et al. Zhang H, et al. Soga T, Heiger DN. Piraud M, et al. Gu H, et al. Wang H, et al. Koeth RA, et al. Wei Y, et al. Pleadin J, et al. Jin Z, et al. Chen G, et al. Support Center Support Center. Please review our privacy policy.

    CiteSeerX — Document Not Found

    clenbuterol en animales pdf

    clenbuterol en animales pdf

    clenbuterol en animales pdf