Different types of plastic frame and its advantagesCellulose proprionate CP is a derivative of cellulose propiobate reacted with propanoic acid the reagent. CP is an organic cellulose propionate plastics with the following R group: Transparent and glossy with better cellulose propionate plastics temperature impact properties cellulose acetate or plastcs acetate butyrate. Spectacle frames - injected around the hinges of the frame. Used for its low weight and tren ave madrid barcelona optical properties to other commonly used polymers. Goggles - dual-layers in visers with other polymers. Used due to its excellent optical properties.
For plastics, pure cellulose from wood pulp or cotton linters pieces too short for textile use is reacted with acids or alkalis and alkyl halides to produce a basic flake. Depending upon the reactants, any one of four esters of cellulose acetate, propionate, acetate butyrate, or nitrate or a cellulose ether ethyl cellulose may result.
The basic flake is used for producing both solvent cast films and molding powders. Ethyl cellulose plastics are thermoplastic and are noted for their ease of molding, light weight, and good dielectric strength, 15 to They are the toughest, the lightest, and have the lowest water absorption of the cellulosic plastics.
But they are softer and lower in strength than cellulose-acetate plastics. Typical ethyl cellulose applications include football helmets, equipment housings, refrigerator parts, and luggage. For molding powders, the flake is then compounded with plasticizers, pigments, and sometimes other additives. At this stage of manufacture, the plastics producer is able to adjust hardness, toughness, flow, and other processing characteristics and properties.
In general, these qualities are spoken of together as flow grades. The flow of a cellulose plastic is determined by the temperature at which a specific amount of the material will flow through a standard orifice under a specified pressure.
Manufacturers offer cellulosic molding materials in a large number of standard flow grades, and, for an application requiring a nonstandard combination of properties, are often able to tailor a compound to fit.
Cellulose can be made into a film cellophane or into a fiber rayon , but it must be chemically modified to produce a thermoplastic material. Because the cellulosics can be compounded with many different plasticizers in widely varying concentrations, property ranges are broad.
Hard flows low plasti-cizer content are relatively hard, rigid, and strong. Soft flows higher plasticizer content are tough, but less hard, less rigid, and less strong. They also process at lower temperatures. Thus, within available property ranges listed, no one formulation can provide all properties to the maximum degree. Most commonly used formulations are in the middle flow ranges. Molded cellulosic parts can be used in service over broad temperature ranges and are particularly tough at very low temperatures.
Ethyl cellulose is outstanding in this respect. These materials have low specific heat and low thermal conductivity — characteristics that give them a pleasant feel. Dimensional stability of butyrate, propionate, and ethyl cellulose is excellent. Plasti-cizers used in these materials do not evaporate significantly and are virtually immune to extraction by water.
Water absorption which causes dimensional change is also low, with that of ethyl cellulose the lowest. The plasticiz-ers in acetate are not as permanent as those in other plastics, however, and water absorption of this material is slightly higher.
Butyrate and propionate are highly resistant to water and most aqueous solutions except strong acids and strong bases. They resist nonpolar materials such as aliphatic hydrocarbons and ethers, but they swell or dissolve in low-molecular-weight polar compounds such as alcohols, esters, and ketones, as well as in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Acetate is slightly less resistant than butyrate and propionate to water and aqueous solutions, and slightly more resistant to organic materials.
Ethyl cellulose dissolves in all the common solvents for this polymer, as well as in such solvents as cyclohexane and diethyl ether. Like the cellulose esters, ethyl cellulose is highly resistant to water. Although unprotected cellulosics are generally not suitable for continuous outdoor use, special formulations of butyrate and propionate are available for such service.
Acetate and ethyl cellulose are not recommended for outdoor use. Cellulose acetate is an amber-colored, transparent material made by the reaction of cellulose and acetic acid or acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid.
It is thermoplastic and easily molded. The molded parts or sheets are tough, easily machined, and resistant to oils and many chemicals. In coatings and lacquers the material is adhesive, tough, and resilient, and does not discolor easily. Cellulose acetate fiber for rayons can be made in fine filaments that are strong and flexible, nonflammable, mildew proof, and easily dyed.
Standard cellulose acetate for molding is marketed in flake form. In practical use, cellulose acetate moldings exhibit toughness superior to most other general-purpose plastics. Flame-resistant formulations are currently specified for small appliance housings and for other uses requiring this property.
Uses for cellulose acetate molding materials include toys, buttons, knobs, and other parts where the combination of toughness and clear transparency is a requirement. Extruded film and sheet of cellulose acetate packaging materials maintain their properties over long periods. Here also the toughness of the material is advantageously used in blister packages, skin packs, window boxes, and overwraps.
It is a breathing wrap and is solvent and heat sealable. Large end uses for cellulose acetate films and sheets include photographic film base, protective cover sheets for notebook pages and documents, index tabs, sound recording tape, as well as the laminating of book covers. The grease resistance of cellulose acetate sheet allows its use in packaging industrial parts with enclosed oil for protection.
For eyeglass frames, cellulose acetate is the material in widest current use. Because fashion requires varied and sometimes novel effects, sheets of clear, pearlescent, and colored cellulose acetate are laminated to make special sheets from which optical frames are fabricated.
The electrical properties of cellulosic films combined with their easy bonding, good aging, and available flame resistance bring about their specification for a broad range of electrical applications. Among these are as insulations for capacitors; communications cable; oil windings; in miniaturized components where circuits may be vacuum metallized ; and as fuse windows.
Cellulose triacetate is widely used as a solvent cast film of excellent physical properties and good dimensional stability. Used as photographic film base and for other critical dimensional work such as graphic arts, cellulose triacetate is not moldable. Cellulose propionate , commonly called "CP" or propionate, is made by the same general method as cellulose acetate, but propionic acid is used in the reaction.
Propionate offers several advantages over cellulose acetate for many applications. Because it is "internally" plasticized by the longer-chain propionate radical, it requires less plasticizer than is required for cellulose acetate of equivalent toughness.
Cellulose propionate absorbs much less moisture from the air and is thus more dimensionally stable than cellulose acetate. Because of better dimensional stability, cellulose propionate is often selected where metal inserts and close tolerances are specified.
Largest-volume uses for cellulose propi-onate are as industrial parts automotive steering wheels, armrests, and knobs, etc. Commonly called butyrate or CAB, it is somewhat tougher and has lower moisture absorption and a higher softening point than acetate. CAB is made by the esterification of cellulose with acetic acid and butyric acid in the pre-sense of a catalyst. It is particularly valued for coatings, insulating types, varnishes, and lacquers. Special formulations with good weathering characteristics plus transparency are used for outdoor applications such as signs, light globes, and lawn sprinklers.
Clear sheets of butyrate are available for vacuum-forming applications. Other typical uses include transparent dial covers, television screen shields, tool handles, and typewriter keys.
Extruded pipe is used for electric conduits, pneumatic tubing, and low-pressure waste lines. Cellulose acetate butyrate also is used for cable coverings and coatings. It is more soluble than cellulose acetate and more miscible with gums. It forms durable and flexible films. A liquid cellulose acetate butyrate is used for glossy lacquers, chemical-resistant fabric coatings, and wire-screen windows. It transmits ultraviolet light without yellowing or hazing and is weather-resistant.
This substance is similar to butyrate in both cost and properties. Some grades have slightly higher strength and modulus of elasticity. Pro-pionate has better molding characteristics, but lower weather ability than butyrate.
Molded parts include steering wheels, fuel filter bowls, and appliance housings. Transparent sheeting is used for blister packaging and food containers. Cellulose nitrates are materials made by treating cellulose with a mixture of nitric and sul-furic acids, washing free of acid, bleaching, stabilizing, and dehydrating.
For sheets, rods, and tubes it is mixed with plasticizers and pigments and rolled or drawn to the shape desired. The lower nitrates are very inflammable, but they do not explode like the high nitrates, and they are the ones used for plastics, rayons, and lacquers, although their use for clothing fabrics is restricted by law.
The names cellulose nitrate and pyroxylin are used for the compounds of lower nitration, and the term nitrocellulose is used for the explosives. Cellulose nitrate is the toughest of the thermoplastics.
It has a specific gravity of 1. It also is readily dyed to any color. It is not light stable, and is therefore no longer used for laminated glass. It is resistant to many chemicals, but has the disadvantage that it is inflammable. The molding is limited to pressing from flat shapes. Among thermoplastics, it is remarkable for toughness.
For many applications today, however, cellulose nitrate is not practical because of serious property shortcomings: Cellulose nitrate cannot be injection-molded or extruded by the nonsolvent process because it is unable to withstand the temperatures these processes require.
It is sold as films, sheets, rods, or tubes, from which end products may then be fabricated. Cellulose nitrate yellows with age; if continuously exposed to direct sunlight, it yellows faster and the surface cracks.
Its rapid burning must be considered for each potential application to avoid unnecessary hazard. The outstanding toughness properties of cellulose nitrate lead to its continuing use in such applications as optical frames, shoe eyelets, ping pong balls, and pen barrels.
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